General Intelligence and Reasoning Test occupies in most of the Competitive Exams and interviews. Therefore, in this lesson we will learn the importance of this subject for the various competitive exams. In simple definition, Reasoning is the process of thinking about something in a logical way in order to form a conclusion or judgment.

What is Reasoning?

When we gather some information, compare it to what we already know and then come up with a conclusion. This conclusion is called Reasoning. Read following sentences to understand the definition:

  1. The act or process of a person who reasons.
  2. The process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises.
  3. The reasons, arguments, proofs, etc. resulting from this process.


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Basic Skills to solve the questions

Reasoning is one of the essential subject to qualify competitive exams. Basic reasoning skills are require to solve the questions faster. It helps to improve time management in interview or any competitive exam. There are four categories of the skills:

  • Storage skills,
  • Retrieval skills,
  • Matching skills,
  • Execution skills.

Deductive vs. Inductive Reasoning

Often, people confuse deductive with inductive reasoning and vice versa. It is important to learn the meaning of each type of reasoning so that proper logic can be identified. However, there are several other types of reasoning which are all related to each other:

  • Deductive –It is a basic form of valid reasoning. Deductive or deduction, starts out with a general statement or hypothesis and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion. For example, “All men are mortal. Harry is a man. Therefore, Harry is mortal.” For deductive reasoning to be sound, the hypothesis must be correct. It is assumed that the premises, “All men are mortal” and “Harry is a man” are true. Therefore, the conclusion is logical and true. In deductive reasoning, if something is true of a class of things in general, it is also true for all members of that class.
  • Inductive- It is opposite of deductive reasoning. Basically, there is data, then conclusions are drawn from the data. This is called inductive logic. An example of inductive logic is, “The coin I pulled from the bag is a penny. That coin is a penny. A third coin from the bag is a penny. Therefore, all the coins in the bag are pennies.” Even if all of the premises are true in a statement, inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false. Here’s an example: “Harry is a grandfather. Harry is bald. Therefore, all grandfathers are bald.” The conclusion does not follow logically from the statements.

Abductive Reasoning

  • Another form of scientific reasoning that doesn’t fit in with inductive or deductive reasoning is abductive. It is based on making and testing hypotheses using the best information available. For example, a person walks into their living room and finds torn up papers all over the floor. The person’s dog has been alone in the room all day. The person concludes that the dog tore up the papers because it is the most likely scenario. Now, the person’s sister may have brought by his niece and she may have torn up the papers, or it may have been done by the landlord, but the dog theory is the more likely conclusion.

Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning

Verbal reasoning works with words i.e. reading comprehension and critical thinking are part of it. It includes spotting letter sequences, cracking codes, following written instructions and thinking about text or finding a letter to complete two other words.

The term ‘non verbal’ indicates ‘does not involve any language‘. Non-verbal reasoning works with pictures and diagrams. It tests the ability to analyse visual information and solve problems based on visual reasoning.

What is Logical (Inductive/Deductive) Reasoning

Logical Reasoning is designed to assess a candidate’s ability at skills such as how to interpret patterns, number sequences or the relationships between shapes. It is the process of using a rational, systematic series of steps based on sound mathematical procedures and given statements to arrive at a conclusion. Inductive and Deductive both have their own logic, so not to confuse. Just clear your doubts first about all the terms here.

The more you practice, the more confident you will be in answering the questions. So, please tell us where you read or heard about the topics we described here? (including the post, if possible).

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